The British Antarctic Expedition, also known as the Southern Cross expedition, was led by Carsten Borchgrevink. This expedition landed at Cape Adare and was the first to winter over in Antarctica. The dogs on this expedition were the first taken to Antarctica.
Robert Falcon Scott headed the British National Antarctic Expedition, also known as the Discovery expedition. One of the expedition’s goals was to reach the South Pole.
The South Pole Expedition, also known as the Fram expedition, was led by the Norwegian Roald Amundsen. He and his party were the first to reach the geographic South Pole on 14 December 1914 and claimed it for Norway.
The British Antarctic Expedition, also known as the Terra Nova expedition, was Robert Falcon Scott’s second attempt at the Pole. His party reached it on 17 January 1912, a month after Amundsen. All five men in the Polar party died on the return journey.
The Australasian Antarctic Expedition , headed by Douglas Mawson, conducted scientific research, explored Antarctica’s interior and charted part of the coastline.
The Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition (1914–1917), known as the Endurance expedition, was led by Ernest Shackleton. Shackleton’s goal was to cross Antarctica via the South Pole. The ship Aurora travelled to the Ross Sea to lay supply depots and planned to meet with Shackleton at the end of his traverse.
Richard E Byrd commanded several United States Antarctic expeditions between 1928 and 1956. He was the first to fly to the South Pole in 1929.
A series of United States missions to Antarctica during the late 1950s, known as Operation Deep Freeze, established permanent American bases. These operations tied in with the International Geophysical Year 1957–1958 in which 67 countries participated in international science projects.
The Commonwealth Trans-Antarctic Expedition completed the first overland crossing of Antarctica that Ernest Shackleton had attempted 40 years earlier. British explorer Vivian Fuchs led the expedition while Edmund Hillary of New Zealand headed the support party.
Scott Base is New Zealand’s permanent base in Antarctica. Constructed at the time of the Commonwealth Trans-Antarctic Expedition, it passed into the ownership of the New Zealand Government in 1958.